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Cyber Security

AI Can Steal PINs and Passwords by Listening to Finger Taps

In a preprint paper - “A new acoustic side channel on smartphones”, published on Arxiv.org, researchers describe a novel attack that recovers characters typed on a virtual keyboard from sounds generated by finger taps. Researchers found the device’s microphone(s) can recover this wave and ‘hear’ the finger’s touch, and the wave’s distortions that are characteristic of the tap’s location on the screen. Hence, by recording audio through the built-in microphone(s), a malicious app can infer text as the user enters it on their device. The team’s approach employs an app that recovers the sounds of taps and correlates them with keystrokes, using a machine learning algorithm that’s trained offline. Architecting the algorithm required overcoming a significant engineering challenge: It needed to be able to account for the interfering vibrations produced by tapping fingertips. The researchers reported that, with two microphones, the model correctly predicted single digits three times better than a random guess in the worst case and 100% of digits in the best case. Moreover, it recovered 54% of PINs after 10 attempts and 91 out of 150 four-digit PINs in 20 attempts. Read More

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Healthcare

AI Can Help Predict Premature Deaths

Researchers at the University of Nottingham in Britain have developed an AI-based system to predict the risk of early deaths due to chronic disease in middle-aged adults. The study found that the new AI machine learning models known as “random forest” and “deep learning” were very accurate in its predictions and performed better than the current standard approach to prediction developed by human experts. The new risk prediction model considers demographic, biometric, clinical and lifestyle factors for each individual and assess even their dietary consumption of fruit, vegetables and meat per day. For the study, the team included over half a million people aged between 40 and 69. Although these techniques could be new to many in health research and difficult to follow, clearly reporting these methods in a transparent way could help with scientific verification and future development of AI for health care. Read More

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Legal Affairs

Can AI Be a Fair Judge in Court? Estonia Thinks So!

The Estonian Ministry of Justice has asked Ott Velsberg, Estonia's Chief Data Officer, and his team to design a “Robot Judge” that could adjudicate small claims disputes of less than EUR7,000. Officials hope the system can clear a backlog of cases for judges and court clerks. The project is in its early phases and will likely start later this year with a pilot focusing on contract disputes. In concept, the two parties will upload documents and other relevant information, and the AI will issue a decision that can be appealed to a human judge. Many details are still to be worked out and Velsberg states that the system might have to be adjusted after feedback from lawyers and judges. The idea of a robot judge might work in Estonia partly because its 1.30 million residents already use a national ID card and are used to an online menu of services such as e-voting and digital tax filing. Read More

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Fast Food Restaurants

AI to Automatically Tweak Drive-Thru Menus

McDonald's is aiming to use AI to automatically tweak drive-thru menus, through the purchase of machine learning startup, Dynamic Yield. The system will look at factors such as the weather, time, local events, traffic levels at the restaurant and on nearby roads, historical sales data, currently popular items and even what customers order, to optimise menu displays at drive-thru windows. It might, for instance, promote the McFlurry or iced coffees on hot days, or suggest simpler items that are faster for employees to prepare if there's a long queue. McDonald's tested the AI at several restaurants last year and will ultimately be rolled out in all of its 14,000 US restaurants and expand to other markets as well. McDonald's also plans to add the AI to self-order kiosks and its mobile app, and perhaps other parts of its business, such as kitchens. McDonald's is also mulling the idea of introducing license plate recognition as part of the system. That way, the AI could identify customer cars and tailor the menu specifically according to their purchase history. Read More

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Information & Publishing

Artificial Intelligence Can Now Write Amazing Content

AI-written content is going beyond formulaic writing to more creative writing endeavors such as poetry and novels. The software process, natural language generation (NLG), automatically creates a written narrative from data. Each content type from social media posts to financial reports to poetry has a unique writing style and structure. The narrative design, also known as the template or narrative type, is constructed by the end-user, the NLG solution or by the software provider. In the case of NLG, structured data is fed into the software and is processed through the "conditional logic" that's part of the narrative design. The goal is for the output to sound like a human-generated each piece of content. NLG allows organizations to process large datasets and create more efficiently than humans can. To cut research time and costs, German bank Commerzbank is using AI to create equity research reports. The technology is already able to perform about 75% of what a human equity analyst would have done. The Associated Press is also using AI to write thousands of sports reports. Following the narrative design, the software scans the data and determines the insights from a game that are important for the reader to know. Read More

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Space Technology

Look! It's a Bird! It's a Plane! No….AI Spots Another Planet!!!

Researchers from The University of Texas have used AI to uncover two more hidden planets in the data collected by the Kepler space telescope. They created an algorithm that sifts through the data taken by Kepler to ferret out signals that were missed by traditional planet-hunting methods. The process, described in The Astronomical Journal, should help astronomers find many more missed planets hiding in Kepler data. Once the team used their algorithm to find these planets, they followed up by studying the host stars using ground-based telescopes to confirm that the planets are real. The current algorithm can be used to probe the entire K2 data set, which includes approximately 300,000 stars. This technique can also be applied to Kepler's successor planet-hunting mission called TESS. Read More

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Art

AI Turns Doodles into Realistic Photos

Computer scientists from South Korea’s Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute have developed an AI algorithm that lets one quickly generate convincing, fake pictures of people just by sketching new features onto them and letting the AI handle the rest. The researchers tried tweaking photos of celebrities to have totally new expressions or facial features. For instance, the researchers doodled a smile onto a photo of a neutral expression, and the algorithm churned out a photo that shows the subject smiling. Similarly, a couple of brushstrokes enabled the neural net to edit people’s jawlines and hairstyles, and even erase sunglasses off their faces, generating realistic eyes in their place. Read More

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Miscellaneous

AI to Speed Up Child Care Facility Selection Process

The Ikeda municipal government in western Japan is set to introduce AI, developed by Fujitsu Laboratories, for the application screening process for child care facilities from fiscal 2019. The selection process, which usually takes hundreds of hours, is expected to be completed in just a few seconds using AI. The government believes the move can reduce the burden on staff and enable speedy notification of application results to parents. Under the current screening method, examiners tally up scores based on factors including the working status of applicants' guardians and their family structure and then allocate applicants to child care facilities based on their parents' order of preference. However, it takes time to determine which facilities to allocate children to. The day care division of the municipal government believes that the use of AI will allow guardians to smoothly return to work from child care leave if they receive prompt notifications of the results. Moreover, such guardians will also benefit as they will have the time to find another option if their child was not accepted in the facility of their choice. Read More

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Decimal Point Analytics Pvt Ltd does not make any recommendation, solicitation, or offer for any securities and is not responsible for suitability of any securities for any purpose, investment or otherwise. It is the sole responsibility of the client, as a professional organization, to exercise professional due diligence in ensuring suitability of investment and ensuring that when the client publishes a part or full report under its own brand, the legal requirements for distribution of such material are complied with in all the jurisdiction in which it is published. Decimal Point Analytics Pvt. Ltd. shall not be responsible for any loss suffered by the user. The returns indicated, including future projections, in any investment report prepared by Decimal Point Analytics Pvt Ltd are not guaranteed in any manner and may not be achieved.

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